Sometimes in conjunction with flame tests, you can use sodium hydroxide to test for the presence of positive metal ions. This works because most ions with a +2 or +3 charge are insoluble in water. Therefore, when sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing them, a hydroxide precipitate forms, containing the insoluble metal.

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We can identify positive ions in different compounds or solutions by using a flame test. In a flame test, the flame will change colour depending on the ions present in the substance you’re testing.

Below is a table of different positive ions and their respective colour:

Metal Colour
Lithium Crimson
Sodium Yellow
Potassium Lilac
Calcium Red
Barium Green

One potential issue with flame tests is that if there is more than one ion present, one colour could mask another. This is why you should also test with sodium hydroxide.

Now we get to probably one of the most interesting parts of the AQA C3 course – the organic chemistry. Not excited already? You get to understand what formula alcohol has, what is actually in vinegar and how they actually make perfumes. Doesn’t sound interesting to you? Well, unfortunately, that’s just too bad, because you need to know it for the AQA C3 exam. Ready (and hopefully excited)? Then let’s go for it…

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One of the most basic fuels (or, at least, mixture of fuels) around – and for the C1 exam, you have to know all about it. What it actually is, different fractions, and how to separate them – this and more is stuff you need to know. So, let’s guess what we’re going to cover here… that’s right, everything about crude oil that you need for the C1 exam. Ready? Here we go…

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